AMA policy on circumcision analysed

The American Medical Association's Policy on Circumcision


1. Laumann EO, Masi CM, Zuckerman EW. Circumcision in the United States. Prevalence, prophylactic effects, and sexual practice. JAMA. 1997;277:1052-1057.

2. Schoen EJ. The status of circumcision of newborns. N Engl J Med. 1990;322:1308-1312.

3. O'Brien TR, Calle EE, Poole WK. Incidence of neonatal circumcision in Atlanta, 1985-1986. South Med J. 1995;88:411-415.

4. Wiswell TE, Hachey WE. Urinary tract infections and the uncircumcised state. Clin Pediatr. 1993;32:130-134.

5. Task Force on Circumcision, American Academy of Pediatrics. Circumcision policy statement. Pediatrics. 1999;103:686-693.

6. Poland RL. The question of routine neonatal circumcision. N Engl J Med. 1990;322:1312.

7. Stang HJ, Snellman LW. Circumcision practice patterns in the United States. Pediatrics. 1998;101(6):e5.

8. Fetus and Newborn Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society. Neonatal circumcision revisited CMAJ. 1996;154:769-780.

9. Australian College of Paediatrics. Position statement: routine circumcision of normal male infants and boys. 1996.

10. The Australian Association of Paediatric Surgeons. Guidelines for Circumcision. Queensland, Australia. April 1996.

11. American Academy of Pediatrics. Report of the Task Force on Circumcision. Pediatrics. 1989;84:388-391.

12. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. In: Guidelines for Perinatal Care, 4th ed. American Academy of Pediatrics; 1997.

13. American Academy of Family Physicians. Fact sheet for physicians regarding neonatal circumcision. Am Fam Physician. 1995;52:523-526.

14. The case against neonatal circumcision. BMJ. 1979; i:1163-1164.

15. Fergusson DM, Lawton JM, Shannon FT. Neonatal circumcision and penile problems: an 8-year longitudinal study. Pediatrics. 1988;81:537-541.

16. To T, Mohammad A, Dick PT, Feldman W. Cohort study of circumcision of newborn boys and subsequent risk of urinary tract infection. Lancet. 1998;352:1813-1816.

17. Craig JC, Knight JF, Sureshkumar P, Mantz E, Roy LP. Effect of circumcision on incidence of urinary tract infection in preschool boys. J Pediatr. 1996;128:23-27.

18. Wiswell TE, Enzenauer RW, Cornish JD, Hankins CT. Declining frequency of circumcision: Implications for changes in the absolute incidence and male to female sex ratio or urinary tract infections in early infancy. Pediatrics. 1987;79:338-341.

19. Thompson RS. Is routine circumcision indicated in the newborn? An opposing view. J Fam Pract. 1990;31:189-196.

20. Chessare JB. Circumcision: is the risk of urinary tract infection really the pivotal issue? Clin Pediatr. 1992;31:100-104.

21. Kochen M, McCurdy S. Circumcision and the risk of cancer of the penis. A life-table analysis. Am J Dis Child. 1980;134:484-486.

22. Dodge OG, Kaviti JN. Male circumcision among the peoples of East Africa and the incidence of genital cancer. East Afr Med J. 1965;42:99-105.

23. Maden C, Sherman KJ, Beckmann AM, et al. History of circumcision, medical conditions, and sexual activity and risk of penile cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1993;85:19-24.

24. Hellberg D, Valentin J, Eklund T, Nilsson S. Penile cancer: is there an epidemiological role for smoking and sexual behavior? BMJ. 1987;295:1306-1308.

25. Brinton LA, Li JY, Rong SD, et al. Risk factors for penile cancer: results from a case-control study in China. Intl J Cancer. 1991;47:504-509.

26. Moses S, Plummer FA, Bradley JE, et al. The association between lack of male circumcision and the risk for HIV infection: a review of the epidemiological data. Sex Transm Dis. 1994;21:201-210.

27. Moses S, Bailey RC, Ronald A. Male circumcision: assessment of health benefits and risks. Sex Transm Inf. 1998;74:368-373.

28. Gee WF, Ansell JS. Neonatal circumcision: a ten-year overview: with comparison of the Gomco clamp and the Plastibell device. Pediatrics. 1976;58:824-827.

29. Harkavy KL. The circumcision debate. Pediatrics. 1987;79:649-650.

30. Williams N, Kapila L. Complications of circumcision. Br J Surg. 1993;80:1231-1236.

31. Griffiths DM, Atwell JD, Freeman NY. A prospective study of the indications and morbidity of circumcision in children. Eur Urol. 1985;11:184-187.

32. Kaplan GW. Complications of circumcision. Urol Clin North Am. 1983;10:543-549.

33. Marshall RE. Neonatal pain associated with caregiving procedures. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1989;36:885-903.

34. Schoen EJ, Fischell AA: Pain in neonatal circumcision. Clin Pediatr. 1991;30:429-432.

35. Marshall RE, Stratton WC, Moore JA, Boxerman SB. Circumcision: I. Effects upon newborn behavior. Infant Behav Dev. 1980;3:1-14.

36. Taddio A, Katz J, Ilersich AL, Koren G. Effect of neonatal circumcision on pain response during subsequent routine vaccination. Lancet. 1997;349:599-603.

37. Kirya C, Werthmann MWJ. Neonatal circumcision and penile dorsal nerve block--a painless procedure. J.Pediatr. 1978;92:998-1000.

38. Blass EM, Hoffmeyer LB. Sucrose as an analgesic for newborn infants. Pediatrics. 1991;87:215-218.

39. Herschel M, Khoshmood B, Ellman C, Maydrew N, Mittrendorf R. Neonatal circumcision. Randomized trial of a sucrose pacifier for pain control. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1998;152:279-284.

40. Dixon S, Snyder J, Holve R, Bromberger P. Behavioral effects of circumcision with and without anesthesia. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 1984;5:246-250.

41. Arnett RM, Jones JS, Horger EO. Effectiveness of 1% lidocaine dorsal penile nerve block in infant circumcision. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990;163:1074-1078.

42. Newton CW, Mulnix N, Baer L, Bovee T. Plain and buffered lidocaine for neonatal circumcision. Obstet Gynecol. 1999;93:350-352.

43. Holve RL, Bromberger PJ, Groveman HD, Klauber MR, Dixon SD, Snyder JM. Regional anesthesia during newborn circumcision. Effect on infant pain response. Clin Pediatr. 1983;22:813-818.

44. Williamson ML. Circumcision anesthesia: a study of nursing implications for dorsal penile nerve block. Pediatr Nurs. 1997;23:59-63.

45. Williamson PS, Williamson ML. Physiologic stress reduction by a local anesthetic during newborn circumcision. Pediatrics. 1983;71:36-40.

46. Maxwell LG, Yaster M, Wetzel RC, Niebyl JR. Penile nerve block for newborn circumcision. Obstet Gynecol. 1987;70:415-419.

47. Stang HJ, Gunnar MR, Snellman L, Condon LM, Kestenbaum R. Local anesthesia for neonatal circumcision. Effects on distress and cortisol response. JAMA. 1988;259:1507-1511.

48. Spencer DM, Miller KA, O'Quin M, et al. Dorsal penile nerve block in neonatal circumcision: chloroprocaine versus lidocaine. Am J Perinatol. 1992;9:214-218.

49. Fontaine P, Dittberner D, Scheltema KE. The safety of dorsal penile nerve block for neonatal circumcision. J Fam Pract. 1994;39:243-248.

50. Snellman LW, Stang HJ. Prospective evaluation of complications of dorsal penile nerve block for neonatal circumcision. Pediatrics. 1995;95:705-708.

51. Sara CA, Lowry CJ. A complication of circumcision and dorsal nerve block of the penis. Anaesth Intensive Care. 1985;13:79-82.

52. Benini F, Johnston CC, Faucher D, Aranda JV. Topical anesthesia during circumcision in newborn infants. JAMA. 1993;270:850-853.

53. Taddio A, Stevens B, Craig K, et al. Efficacy and safety of lidocaine-prilocaine cream for pain during circumcision [see comments]. N Engl J Med. 1997;336:1197-1201.

54. Rylander E, Sjoberg I, Lilliborg S, Stockman O. Local anesthesia of the genital mucosa with lidocaine/prilocaine cream (EMLA) for laser treatment of condylomata acuminata: a placebo controlled study. Obstet Gynecol. 1990;75:302-306.

55. Lander J, Brady-Fryer B, Metcalfe JB, Nazarali S, Muttitt S. Comparison of ring block, dorsal penile nerve block, and topical anesthesia for neonatal circumcision: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1997;278:2157-2162.

56. Thompson HC. The value of neonatal circumcision. An unanswered and perhaps unanswerable question. Am J Dis Child. 1983;137:939-940.

57. Tedder JL. Newborn circumcision. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 1987;16:42-47.

58. Weatherstone KB, Rasmussen LB, Erenberg A, Jackson EM, Claflin KS, Leff RD. Safety and efficacy of a topical anesthetic for neonatal circumcision. Pediatrics. 1993;92:710-714.

59. Hardwick-Smith S, Mastrobattista JM, Wallace PA, Ritchey ML. Ring block for neonatal circumcision. Obstet Gynecol.. 1998;91:930-934.

60. Butler O'Hara M, LeMoine C, Guillet R. Analgesia for neonatal circumcision: A randomized controlled trial of EMLA cream versus dorsal penile nerve block. Pediatrics. 1998;101:691.

61. Olson TL, Downey VW. Infant physiological responses to noxious stimuli of circumcision with anesthesia and analgesia. Pediatr Nurs. 1998;24:385-389.

62. Howard CR, Howard FM, Garfunkel LC, de Blieck EA, Weitzman M. Neonatal circumcision and pain relief: current training practices. Pediatrics. 1998;101(3 pt 1):423-428.

63. Brown MS, Brown CA. Circumcision decisions: prominence of social concerns. Pediatrics. 1987;80:215-219.

64. Christensen-Szalanski JJ, Boyce WT, Harrell H, Gardner MM. Circumcision and informed consent. Is more information always better? Med Care. 1987;25:856-867.

65. Herrara AJ, Cochran B, Herrara A, et al. Parental information and circumcision in highly motivated couples with higher education. Pediatrics. 1983;71:233-234.

66. Maisels MJ, Hayes B, Conrad S, et al. Circumcision: the effect of information on parental decision making. Pediatrics. 1983;71:453-455.

67. Ciesielski-Carlucci C, Milliken N, Cohen NH. Determinants of decision making for circumcision. Camb Q Health Ethics. 1997;5:228-236.

68. Tiemstra JD. Factors affecting the circumcision decision. J Am Board Fam Pract. 1999;12:16-20


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